This paper analyzes turbulence-chemistry interactions of an n-dodecane-air flame, focusing on the degree to which flame structure and fuel oxidation pathways change in turbulent flames relative to their corresponding laminar flames. This work is based on a lean (ϕ = 0.7) n-dodecane-air flame DNS database from Aspden et al. (2017). The relative roles of dominant reactions that release heat and produce/consume radicals are examined at various turbulence intensities and compared with stretched flame calculations from counterflow flames and perfectly stirred reactors. These results show that spatially integrated chemical pathways are relatively insensitive to turbulence intensity and mimic the behavior of stretched flames. In other words, the contribution of a given reaction to heat release or radical production, integrated over the entire flame, is insensitive to turbulence. Localized analysis conditioned on topological feature of the flame and on temperature is also performed. The former analysis reveals that larger alteration of pathways occurs in the positively-curved regions of the flame. Most significantly, it shows that the thermal structure of the flame is altered, as peak reaction rates and heat release in the low temperature (i.e., below 1200 K) region shift towards higher temperatures with increases in Karlovitz number. This result is particularly interesting given that prior work with lighter fuels (e.g., hydrogen) showed the opposite behavior. Various stretched, laminar flame calculations with altered transport effects were performed for reference. These calculations, using mixture-averaged and Le = 1 transport model, can capture similar shifts towards higher temperatures in laminar flames with increasing stretch. However, the stretch rate and transport values must be tuned to match these shifts in thermal structure differently, depending upon reactions, species, and Ka value. This effect is particularly prominent for low temperature species. Thus, these results show that flames do not simply shift to a Le = 1 thermal structure with high turbulence intensity, as previously suggested, but there is interplay between altered scalar diffusivity and stretch effects.
Dasgupta, D., Sun, W., Day, M., Aspden, A. J., & Lieuwen, T. (2019). Analysis of chemical pathways and flame structure for n-dodecane/air turbulent premixed flames. Combustion and Flame, 207, 36–50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.combustflame.2019.05.026