Spectral signatures of natural scenes were earlier found to be distinctive for different scene types with varying spatial envelope properties such as openness, naturalness, ruggedness, and symmetry. Recently, such handcrafted features have been outclassed by deep learning based representations. This paper proposes a novel spectral description of convolution features, implemented efficiently as a unitary transformation within deep network architectures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to use deep learning based spectral features explicitly for image classification task. We show that the spectral transformation decorrelates convolutional activations, which reduces co-adaptation between feature detections, thus acts as an effective regularizer. Our approach achieves significant improvements on three large-scale scene-centric datasets (MIT-67, SUN-397, and Places-205). Furthermore, we evaluated the proposed approach on the attribute detection task where its superior performance manifests its relevance to semantically meaningful characteristics of natural scenes.
Khan, S. H., Hayat, M., & Porikli, F. (2017). Scene Categorization with Spectral Features. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (Vol. 2017-October, pp. 5639–5649). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCV.2017.601