Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Substance Use Disorders (SUDs) are known to be important contributing factors in the development and exacerbation of various types of antisocial behavior. The treatment of patients who exhibit frequent antisocial behavior and suffer from these conditions is often experienced as challenging by therapists and usually produce very modest effects, if any at all. Recent advances in neuropsychology, however, may offer new perspectives concerning the efficacy of offender treatment in these patients. This chapter will focus on two interesting new developments in offender treatment with patients suffering from ADHD and SUDs: Neurofeedback and the Relapse Early Warning And Response System (REWARS). Neurofeedback is a method of influencing the brain's activity by way of operant conditioning. REWARS is a daily test and intervention protocol for patients suffering from SUDs. It makes use of the attentional bias concerning stimuli that are related to the substance the subject is addicted to. This attentional bias is typically shown by the subject twelve to twenty-four hours before the onset of craving for the substance and subsequent relapse. Both treatment methods will be explained extensively. Their empirical bases and implementability will also be discussed.
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