Background: In simultaneous EEG-fMRI, identification of the period of cardioballistic artifact (BCG) in EEG is required for the artifact removal. Recording the electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform during fMRI is difficult, often causing inaccurate period detection. New method: Since the waveform of the BCG extracted by independent component analysis (ICA) is relatively invariable compared to the ECG waveform, we propose a multiple-scale peak-detection algorithm to determine the BCG cycle directly from the EEG data. The algorithm first extracts the high contrast BCG component from the EEG data by ICA. The BCG cycle is then estimated by band-pass filtering the component around the fundamental frequency identified from its energy spectral density, and the peak of BCG artifact occurrence is selected from each of the estimated cycle. Results: The algorithm is shown to achieve a high accuracy on a large EEG-fMRI dataset. It is also adaptive to various heart rates without the needs of adjusting the threshold parameters. The cycle detection remains accurate with the scan duration reduced to half a minute. Additionally, the algorithm gives a figure of merit to evaluate the reliability of the detection accuracy. Comparison with existing method: The algorithm is shown to give a higher detection accuracy than the commonly used cycle detection algorithm fmrib_qrsdetect implemented in EEGLAB. Conclusions: The achieved high cycle detection accuracy of our algorithm without using the ECG waveforms makes possible to create and automate pipelines for processing large EEG-fMRI datasets, and virtually eliminates the need for ECG recordings for BCG artifact removal.
Wong, C. K., Luo, Q., Zotev, V., Phillips, R., Chan, K. W. C., & Bodurka, J. (2018). Automatic cardiac cycle determination directly from EEG-fMRI data by multi-scale peak detection method. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 304, 168–184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2018.03.017