Esophagectomy followed by esophagogastrostomy is the preferred treatment for early-stage esophageal cancer. It carries the risk of anastomotic leakage after esophagogastric anastomosis, which is one of the most dangerous complications and causes considerable morbidity and mortality. Omentoplasty was recommended in some studies to preventing anastomotic leaks associated with esophagogastrostomy. However, the value of omentoplasty for esophagogastrostomy after esophagectomy has not been systematically reviewed. To assess the effects of omentoplasty for esophagogastrostomy after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patients. A comprehensive search strategy was carried out to identify eligible studies for inclusion in the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and other reliable resources. Randomized controlled trials comparing omentoplasty with no omentoplasty for esophagogastrostomy after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patients were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors (Yong Yuan and Xiaoxi Zeng) independently assessed the quality of included studies and extracted data, with disagreements resolved by arbitration by another review author. Results of dichotomous outcomes were expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), while continuous outcomes were expressed as mean differences (MD) with 95% CI. Meta-analysis was performed where the data available were sufficiently similar. Subgroup analysis was carried out based on different operation approaches. Two randomized controlled trials (449 participants) were included in the review. There was no significant difference for hospital mortality between the study (with omentoplasty) and the control group (without omentoplasty) (RR 1.00; 95% CI 0.25 to 3.92). Neither of the included studies reported the difference of long-term survival between two groups. The incidence of postoperative anastomotic leakage was significantly lower in patients treated with omentoplasty than those without (RR 0.22; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.58); but the additional benefit only showed in patients receiving a transhiatal esophagogastrectomy (THE) procedure in subgroup analysis (THE: RR 0.23; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.79; transthoracic esophagogastrectomy (TTE): RR 0.19; 95% CI 0.03 to 1.03). Omentoplasty did not significantly improve other surgical-related complications, anastomotic strictures (RR 0.73; 95% CI 0.21 to 2.58) and duration of hospitalization (MD -2.70; 95% CI -6.01 to 0.61). Omentoplasty may provide an additional benefit to decrease the incidence of anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy and esophagogastrostomy for esophageal cancer patients without increasing or decreasing other complications, especially for those patients treated with THE. Further randomized controlled trials are still needed to investigate the influences of omentoplasty in different operation procedures of esophagectomy and esophagogastrostomy on the incidence of anastomotic leakage, anastomotic stricture, long-term survival rate and quality of life after esophagectomy and esophagogastrostomy.
Yuan, Y., Zeng, X., Hu, Y., Xie, T., & Zhao, Y. (2012). Omentoplasty for esophagogastrostomy after esophagectomy. In Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd008446.pub2