Visceral obesity and high systolic blood pressure as the substrate of endothelial dysfunction in obese adolescents

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Abstract

Background: Obesity affects adolescence and may lead to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and endothelial dysfunction, an early marker of cardiovascular risk. Albeit obesity is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), it is not clear the role of OSA in endothelial function in adolescents with obesity. Objective: To investigate whether obesity during adolescence leads to MetS and/or OSA; and causes endothelial dysfunction. In addition, we studied the possible association of MetS risk factors and apnea hypopnea index (AHI) with endothelial dysfunction. Methods: We studied 20 sedentary obese adolescents (OA; 14.2±1.6 years, 100.9±20.3kg), and 10 normal-weight adolescents (NWA, 15.2±1.2 years, 54.4±5.3kg) paired for sex. We assessed MetS risk factors (International Diabetes Federation criteria), vascular function (FlowMediated Dilation, FMD), functional capacity (VO2 peak) and the presence of OSA (AHI>1event/h, by polysomnography). We considered statistically significant a P<0.05. Results: OA presented higher waist (WC), body fat, triglycerides, systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), LDL-c and lower HDL-c and VO2 peak than NWA. MetS was presented in the 35% of OA, whereas OSA was present in 86.6% of OA and 50% of EA. There was no difference between groups in the AHI. The OA had lower FMD than NWA (6.17±2.72 vs. 9.37±2.20%, p=0.005). There was an association between FMD and WC (R=-0.506, p=0.008) and FMD and SBP (R=-0.493, p=0.006). Conclusion: In adolescents, obesity was associates with MetS and caused endothelial dysfunction. Increased WC and SBP could be involved in this alteration. OSA was observed in most adolescents, regardless of obesity. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2021; 116(4):795-803).

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Hussid, M. F., Cepeda, F. X., Jordão, C. P., Lopes-Vicente, R. R. P., Virmondes, L., Katayama, K. Y., … Trombetta, I. C. (2021). Visceral obesity and high systolic blood pressure as the substrate of endothelial dysfunction in obese adolescents. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 116(4), 795–803. https://doi.org/10.36660/abc.20190541

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