The Citarum River has a volcanic catchment area in West Java Province, and is one of the nationally strategic rivers in tropical Indonesia due to its roles in water supply and in power generation. The river is economically important, but it is also polluted by industrial, agricultural, and residential wastes. Suspended sediment samples were collected along a certain section of the Citarum River, starting in Balekambang through the area of Bandung Regency to the downstream village of Nanjung, where the river is dammed. Similar samples were also collected from seven tributaries of the Citarum River. Magnetic and heavy metal analyses show that unlike river sediments from a non-volcanic catchment area in temperate climates, magnetic susceptibility values tend to decrease downstream, showing that the magnetic minerals in the upstream area are mostly lithogenic in origin, containing more Fe-bearing minerals compared to those in tributary samples which are anthropogenic in origin. Anthropogenic pollution is also represented by the increase of Zn content along the river. The results suggest that applying magnetic methods for monitoring river pollution in the tropics or in the volcanic areas should be carefully analyzed and interpreted.
Sudarningsih, S., Bijaksana, S., Ramdani, R., Hafidz, A., Pratama, A., Widodo, W., … Santoso, N. A. (2017). Variations in the concentration of magnetic minerals and heavy metals in suspended sediments from citarum river and its tributaries, West Java, Indonesia. Geosciences (Switzerland), 7(3). https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences7030066