This paper presents a fully convolutional network-based segmentation method to create an eyeball model data for patient-specific ophthalmologic surgery simulation. In order to create an elaborate eyeball model for each patient, we need to accurately segment eye structures with different sizes and complex shapes from high-resolution images. Therefore, we aim to construct a fully convolutional network to enable accurate segmentation of anatomical structures in an eyeball from training on sparsely-annotated images, which can provide a user with all annotated slices if he or she annotates a few slices in each image volume data. In this study, we utilize a fully convolutional network with full-resolution residual units that effectively learns multi-scale image features for segmentation of eye macro- and microstructures by acting as a bridge between the two processing streams (residual and pooling streams). In addition, a weighted loss function and data augmentation are utilized for network training to accurately perform the semantic segmentation from only sparsely-annotated axial images. From the results of segmentation experiments using micro-CT images of pig eyeballs, we found that the proposed network provided better segmentation performance than conventional networks and achieved mean Dice similarity coefficient scores of 91.5% for segmentation of eye structures even from a small amount of training data.
Sugino, T., Roth, H. R., Oda, M., & Mori, K. (2018). Fully convolutional network-based eyeball segmentation from sparse annotation for eye surgery simulation model. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) (Vol. 11042 LNCS, pp. 118–126). Springer Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-01045-4_14