In this chapter, mathematics is considered to be a multimodal semiotic process involving the use of language, images, and mathematical symbolism, each with their own systems of meaning which integrate to create mathematical knowledge. The specific relations between linguistic, visual, and symbolic systems have led to semantic expansions in mathematics, resulting in a hierarchical knowledge structure which extends beyond the reach of other forms of human communication.
O’Halloran, K. L. (2015). Mathematics as multimodal semiosis. In Mathematics, Substance and Surmise: Views on the Meaning and Ontology of Mathematics (pp. 287–303). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21473-3_14