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Background Endometrial cancer is one of the most common gynaecological cancers in developed countries. Treatment of advanced endometrial cancer usually involves radiotherapy, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy or a combination of these. However, survival outcomes are poor in advanced or metastatic disease. Better systemic treatment options are needed to improve survival and safety outcomes for these women. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is a frequently altered signalling pathway in endometrial cancer. Single-arm studies have reported some encouraging results of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibition in advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer. Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitor-containing regimens in women with locally-advanced, metastatic or recurrent endometrial cancer. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and Embase to 16 January 2019; and the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov in July 2018. We also reviewed reference lists from included studies and endometrial cancer guidelines. Selection criteria We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing a regimen with a PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitor (either alone or in combination with other treatments, such as chemotherapy or hormonal therapy) versus a comparator regimen without a PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitor. There were no restrictions on which comparator(s) were included. Data collection and analysis We extracted data independently, and assessed risks of bias and the certainty of the evidence. The primary outcome measures were progression-free survival and toxicity (grade 3/4 where available). We derived hazard ratios (HRs) for time-to-event outcomes and risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes. Secondary outcomes included overall survival, objective tumour response rate, quality of life and treatment-related death. We used GRADEproGDT to assess the certainty of the evidence for the most important outcomes (by first-line and second/third-line therapy for progression-free survival and overall survival). Main results We included two RCTs involving 361 women. One study assessed the effects of the mTOR inhibitor temsirolimus, in combination with carboplatin/paclitaxel versus carboplatin/paclitaxel and bevacizumab in treatment-naïve women with advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer. The second study compared the mTOR inhibitor ridaforolimus alone versus progestin or investigator choice of chemotherapy in women who had received prior treatment for metastatic or recurrent endometrial cancer. We identified five ongoing studies on the effects of PI3K and AKT inhibitors, metformin and dual mTOR inhibitors. For first-line therapy, an mTOR inhibitor-containing regimen may worsen progression-free survival (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.93; 1 study, 231 participants; low-certainty evidence), while for second/third-line therapy, an mTOR inhibitor probably improves progression-free survival compared to chemotherapy or endocrine therapy (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.91; 1 study, 95 participants; moderate-certainty evi-dence). Data on toxicity were available from both studies: administering an mTOR inhibitor regimen may increase the risk of grade 3/4 mucositis (RR 10.42, 95% CI 1.34 to 80.74; 2 studies, 357 participants; low-certainty evidence), but may result in little to no difference in risk of anaemia or interstitial pneumonitis (low-certainty evidence for both toxicities). Overall, event rates were low. For first-line therapy, an mTOR inhibitor-containing regimen may result in little to no difference in overall survival compared to chemotherapy (HR 1.32, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.781 study, 231 participants; low-certainty evidence). The finding was similar for second/third-line therapy (HR 1.06, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.61; 1 study, 130 participants; low-certainty evidence). Administering mTOR inhibitor-containing regimens may result in little to no difference in tumour response compared to chemotherapy or hormonal therapy in first-line or second/third-line therapy (first line: RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.17; 1 study, 231 participants; second/third line: RR 0.22, 95% CI 0.01 to 4.40; 1 study, 61 participants; low-certainty evidence). Neither study collected or reported quality-of-life data. Authors' conclusions Two RCTs have been reported to date, with low certainty of evidence. In a recurrent disease setting, mTOR inhibitors may result in improved progression-free survival, but we found no clear benefit in overall survival or tumour response rate. We await the publication of at least five ongoing studies investigating the role of PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors in advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer before any conclusions can be drawn on their use.
Roncolato, F., Lindemann, K., Willson, M. L., Martyn, J., & Mileshkin, L. (2019, October 7). Pi3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors for advanced or recurrent endometrial cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012160.pub2