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Background: Polyploidy, although still poorly explored, represents an important evolutionary event in several cyprinid clades. Herein, Catlocarpio siamensis and Probarbus jullieni - representatives of the paleotetraploid tribe Probarbini, were characterized both by conventional and molecular cytogenetic methods. Results: Alike most other paleotetraploid cyprinids (with 2n = 100), both species studied here shared 2n = 98 but differed in karyotypes: C. siamensis displayed 18m + 34sm + 46st/a; NF = 150, while P. jullieni exhibited 26m + 14sm + 58st/a; NF = 138. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with rDNA probes revealed two (5S) and eight (18S) signals in C. siamensis, respectively, and six signals for both probes in P. jullieni. FISH with microsatellite motifs evidenced substantial genomic divergence between both species. The almost doubled size of the chromosome pairs #1 in C. siamensis and #14 in P. jullieni compared to the rest of corresponding karyotypes indicated chromosomal fusions. Conclusion: Based on our findings, together with likely the same reduced 2n = 98 karyotypes in the remainder Probarbini species, we hypothesize that the karyotype 2n = 98 might represent a derived character, shared by all members of the Probarbini clade. Besides, we also witnessed considerable changes in the amount and distribution of certain repetitive DNA classes, suggesting complex post-polyploidization processes in this small paleotetraploid tribe.
Saenjundaeng, P., De Bello Cioffi, M., De Oliveira, E. A., Tanomtong, A., Supiwong, W., Phimphan, S., … Ráb, P. (2018). Chromosomes of Asian cyprinid fishes: Cytogenetic analysis of two representatives of small paleotetraploid tribe Probarbini. Molecular Cytogenetics, 11(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13039-018-0399-8