The provision and demand for safe water continues to be a major aspect for governments worldwide as the population continues to grow accompanied by an increase in anthropogenic activities that contaminate water bodies. The common contaminants are the negatively charged ions such as sulfates, positive ions like heavy metals and organic molecules like dyes and phenols. Although, various methods exist for purification of wastewater, the adsorption process is a low cost method that uses readily available adsorbents. Activated carbon, although costly for developing countries, is still the most efficient adsorbent for a variety of substances. However, low cost adsorbents derived from biowaste have being actively explored in water purification. Photocatalytic nanostructured adsorbents not only play a bifunctional role in adsorbing contaminants but also are able to decompose organic pollutants in water using sunlight. The engineering of naturally abundant clay in most developing countries offers an even inexpensive way to clean-up wastewater.
Kennedy, K. K., Maseka, K. J., & Mbulo, M. (2018). Selected Adsorbents for Removal of Contaminants from Wastewater: Towards Engineering Clay Minerals. Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 08(08), 355–369. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojapps.2018.88027