To determine the accuracy and utility of single-plane transesophageal echocardiography in analyzing atrioventricular (AV) septal defect, intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography was performed before and after institution of cardiopulmonary bypass in 16 patients (age 24 days to 14 years, weight 3 to 47 kg). Prebypass transesophageal echocardiography (including two-dimensional echocardiography, Doppler color flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound) correctly diagnosed divided AV valve, common AV valve and unbalanced AV valve, as well as atrial or ventricular septal defect, or both, in all cases. It correctly analyzed AV valve regurgitation in all 10 patients with right and all 14 with left AV valve regurgitation and correctly analyzed 30 of 33 additional cardiac anomalies. Transesophageal echocardiography was able to detect the absence of normal pulmonary venous connections but failed to demonstrate all of the complex anomalous pulmonary venous connections in three patients with atrial isomerism. Postbypass transesophageal echocardiography documented the absence of a significant residual shunt in 11 of 11 patients undergoing corrective surgery and verified residual AV valve regurgitation in 7 of 9 patients with tricuspid regurgitation and 11 of 13 with mitral regurgitation. Transesophageal echocardiographic information that altered or refined the surgical treatment was obtained in 5 (31%) of 16 patients. Epicardial and transesophageal echocardiography results were concordant in all 13 patients in whom both were performed. Transesophageal echocardiography provides useful and accurate imaging of the important two-dimensional, pulsed wave Doppler ultrasound and Doppler color flow mapping features in AV septal defect. © 1991.
Roberson, D. A., Muhiudeen, I. A., Silverman, N. H., Turley, K., Haas, G. S., & Cahalan, M. K. (1991). Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography of atrioventricular septal defect. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 18(2), 537–545. https://doi.org/10.1016/0735-1097(91)90612-D