Growth hormone (GH) effects on fatty acid composition and on Δ5-, Δ6-, Δ9-desaturase and palmitic acid elongation activities were studied in male rat hepatic microsomes. Sham-operated and hypophysectomized animals were injected with two different dosages of GH, mimicking either the male or female GH secretion pattern. Half the hypophysectomized animals received thyroxine and cortisol in concentrations chosen to compensate for the lack of thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids. GH, administered to sham-operated or to cortisol/thyroxine-treated hypophysectomized rats resulted in an increase in stearic and arachidonic acid proportions, while palmitic acid percentage was decreased. Total monounsaturated fatty acids were dramatically reduced by this treatment. Δ5-Desaturase and palmitic acid elongation activities were increased by GH treatment, while Δ9-desaturase activity was decreased. These GH effects on desaturation and elongation activities could explain the modifications in microsomal fatty acid composition. Hypophysectomy markedly altered the fatty acid composition by reducing arachidonic and stearic acid proportions and increasing the linoleic acid proportion, while Δ9-, Δ5-desaturase and palmitic acid elongation activities were decreased. Restoration of most of the fatty acid proportions to control values was realized in hypophysectomized animals with a cortisol/thyroxine replacement administered alone or together with the low dosage of GH mimicking the male secretion pattern. High GH dosage produces essentially a 'feminization' process of the fatty acid composition of the hepatic microsomal membrane in male rats when compared to that of females.
Guéraud, F., & Paris, A. (1997). Hepatic microsomal membrane lipidic composition and growth hormone effect in adult male rat: Evidence for a “feminization” process of total phospholipid fatty acid pattern. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes, 1329(1), 97–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-2736(97)00092-8