We propose a new protocol allowing the exchange of an item against a signature while assuring fairness. The proposed protocol, based on the Girault-Poupard-Stern signature scheme (a variation of the Schnorr scheme), assumes the existence of a trusted third party that, except in the setup phase, is involved in the protocol only when one of the parties does not follow the designated protocol or some technical problem occurs during the execution of the protocol. The interesting feature of the protocol is the low communication and computational charges required by the parties. Moreover, in case of problems during the main protocol, the trusted third party can derive the same digital signature as the one transmitted in a faultless case, rather than an affidavit or an official certificate.
Markowitch, O., & Saeednia, S. (2002). Optimistic fair exchange with transparent signature recovery. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) (Vol. 2339, pp. 339–350). Springer Verlag. https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-46088-8_26