Local Flaps in Facial Reconstruction

  • Ilankovan V
  • Ethunandan M
  • Seah T
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Although reconstruction of the head and neck with local flaps is an ancient art, sophistication of principles and application of new ideas have remarkably improved results even in the most complex reconstructions. The principles of the esthetic units and subunits of the face, as well as a new understanding of skin tension, tissue vascularity, and flap anatomy, have enabled surgeons to use flaps that are both physiologically sound and cosmetically acceptable. These factors, along with new ideas on flap design, have triggered a renaissance in local flap reconstruction of the head and neck. An overview of the field is presented as a setting for the advances identified in the period of review.




Ilankovan, V., Ethunandan, M., & Seah, T. E. (2015). Local Flaps in Facial Reconstruction. Local Flaps in Facial Reconstruction. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08479-4

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