We compared the stage at which cancer is diagnosed and survival rates between African Americans and whites, for thirty-four solid tumors, using the population-based Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Whites were diagnosed at earlier stages than African Americans for thirty-one of the thirty-four tumor sites. Whites were significantly more likely than blacks to survive five years for twenty-six tumor sites; no cancer site had significantly superior survival among African Americans. These differences cannot be explained by screening behavior or risk factors; they point instead to the need for broad-based strategies to remedy racial inequality in cancer survival. ©2009 Project HOPE-The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Virnig, B. A., Baxter, N. N., Habermann, E. B., Feldman, R. D., & Bradley, C. J. (2009). A matter of race: Early-versus late-stage cancer diagnosis. Health Affairs, 28(1), 160–168. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.28.1.160