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Background: Gender differences in organ involvement and clinical severity have been poorly described in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). The aim of this study was to describe differences in the severity of HHT manifestations according to gender. Methods: Severity was measured according to Epistaxis Severity Score (ESS), Simple Clinical Scoring Index for hepatic involvement, a general HHT-score, needing for invasive treatment (pulmonary or brain arteriovenous malformations-AVMs-embolization, liver transplantation or Young's surgery) or the presence of adverse outcomes (severe anemia, emergency department-ED-or hospital admissions and mortality). Results: One hundred forty-two (58.7%) women and 100 (41.3%) men were included with a mean age of 48.9 ± 16.6 and 49 ± 16.5 years, respectively. Women presented hepatic manifestations (7.1% vs 0%) and hepatic involvement (59.8% vs 47%), hepatic AVMs (28.2% vs 13%) and bile duct dilatation (4.9% vs 0%) at abdominal CT, and pulmonary AVMs at thoracic CT (35.2% vs 23%) more often than men. The Simple Clinical Scoring Index was higher in women (3.38 ± 1.2 vs 2.03 ± 1.2), and more men were considered at low risk of harboring clinically significant liver disease than women (61% vs 25.3%). These differences were mantained when considering HHT1 and HHT2 patients separetely. Duodenal telangiectasia were more frequent in men than women (21% vs 9.8%). Invasive treatments were more frequently needed in women (28.2% vs 16%) but men needed attention at the ED more often than women (48% vs 28.2%), with no differences in ESS, HHT-score, anemia hospital admissions or mortality. Conclusions: HHT women showed more severe hepatic involvement than men, also among HHT1 and HHT2 patients. Women had higher prevalence of pulmonary AVMs and needed invasive procedures more frequently, while men needed attention at the ED more often. These data might help physicians to individualize HHT patients follow-up.
Mora-Luján, J. M., Iriarte, A., Alba, E., Sánchez-Corral, M. A., Cerdà, P., Cruellas, F., … Riera-Mestre, A. (2020). Gender differences in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia severity. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13023-020-1337-5