The modeling-based learning framework is an approach to science learning involving model construction, refinement, and validation. We begin by describing the epistemological underpinnings and the rationale for a modeling-based teaching and learning approach for developing knowledge of natural phenomena. We proceed by describing the modeling-based learning framework in terms of modeling practices (model construction, model use, model revision, model comparison, and model validation) and the modeling of meta-knowledge (knowledge about models and metacognitive knowledge of the modeling process) that emerge as one develops expertise in scientific modeling. We also present a process for identifying levels of attainment for each component of the framework and examples of such attainment levels. Our core argument refers to the interconnectedness of the practical and epistemological aspects of modeling-based learning and the usefulness of the framework for designing teaching-learning sequences and assessments. We compare and contrast the modeling-based learning framework with the basic features of the framework for modeling competence, and we discuss the implementation of the modeling-based learning framework into meaningful learning and teaching practices.
Constantinou, C. P., Nicolaou, C. Th., & Papaevripidou, M. (2019). A Framework for Modeling-Based Learning, Teaching, and Assessment (pp. 39–58). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-30255-9_3