The concept of open ground building (OGS) has taken its place in the Indian urban environment due to the fact that it provides the parking facility in the ground storey of the building. The cost of construction of this type of building is much less than that of a building with basement parking. Surveys of buildings failed in the past earthquakes show that this types of buildings are found to be one of the most vulnerable. The majority of buildings that failed during the Bhuj earthquake (2001) and Gujraat earthquake were of the open ground storey type. The collapse mechanism of such type of building is predominantly due to the formation of soft-storey behavior in the ground storey of this type of building. The sudden reduction in lateral stiffness and mass in the ground storey results in higher stresses in the columns of ground storey under seismic loading. In conventional design practice, the contribution of stiffness of infill walls present in upper storeys of OGS framed buildings are ignored in the structural modelling (commonly called bare frame analysis). Design based on such analysis, results in underestimation of the bending moments and shear forces in the columns of ground storey, and hence it may be one of the reasons responsible for the failures observed. After the Bhuj earthquake took place, the IS 1893 code was revised in 2002, incorporating new design recommendations to address OGS framed buildings. According to this clause 7.10.3(a) of the same code states: "The columns and beams of the soft-storey are to be designed for the multiplication factor of 2.5 times the storey shears and moments calculated under seismic loads of bare frame". The prescribed multiplication factor (MF) of 2.5, applicable for all OGS framed buildings, is proved to be fairly higher and suggests that all existing OGS framed buildings (those designed to earlier codes) are highly vulnerable under seismic loading. This MF value however does not account for number of storeys, number of bays, type and number of infill walls present, etc and hence it is independent of all of the above factors. Present study deals with various aspects related to the performance of OGS buildings. The values of magnification factor recommended in literatures vary from 1.0 to 4.8 (Kaushik, 2009).The main objective of present study is the study of comparative performance of OGS buildings designed according to various MFs using nonlinear analysis. As the more realistic performance of the OGS building requires the modelling the stiffness and strength of the infill walls, the stiffness and strength of the infill walls also considered. The variations in the type of the infill walls using in Indian constructions are significant. Depending on the modulus of elasticity and the strength, it can be classified as strong or weak. The two extreme cases of infill walls, strong and weak are considered in the study. The behavior of buildings depends on the type of foundations and soils also. Depending on the foundations resting on soft or hard soils, the displacement boundary conditions at the bottom of foundations can be considered as hinged or fixed. As the modeling of soils is not in the scope of the study, two boundary conditions, fixed and hinged, that represent two extreme conditions are considered. Keywords-infill walls, diagonal strut, open ground storey, pushover analysis, High rise building.
Avhad, K. B. (2014). Seismic Analysis of High-Rise Open Ground Storey Framed Building. International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering, (4), 2277–3878.