The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is the most important blood sucking ectoparasite of egg laying hens and causes economic losses in poultry farms worldwide. Although various management methods exist, the control of poultry red mites (PRMs) mainly relies on acaricides such as pyrethroids and organophosphates (OPs) in many regions of the world. However, repeated use of these synthetic chemicals has resulted in resistance development causing control failure of PRM. In this study, we investigated acaricide resistance mechanisms of Turkish PRM populations. First, we obtained the COI sequence from 30 PRM populations from different regions in Turkey and identified four different COI haplotypes. Toxicity assays showed that four field-collected PRM populations were highly resistant to the pyrethroid alpha-cypermethrin, with resistance ratios (RRs) varying between 100- and 400-fold, while two of these populations had a RR of more than 24-fold against the OP acaricide phoxim. Biochemical assays showed a relatively higher activity of glutathione-S-transferases and carboxyl-cholinesterases, two well-known classes of detoxification enzymes, in one of these resistant populations. In addition, we also screened for mutations in the gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) and acetylcholinesterase 1 (ace-1), the target-site of pyrethroids and OPs, respectively. In all but two PRM populations, at least one vgsc mutation was detected. A total of four target-site mutations, previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, M918T, T929I, F1534L, F1538L were found in domain II and III of the VGSC. The T929I mutation was present in the vgsc of almost all PRM populations, while the other mutations were only found at low frequency. The G119S/A mutation in ace-1, previously associated with OP resistance, was found in PRM for the first time and present in fourteen populations. Last, both alive and dead PRMs were genotyped after pesticide exposure and supported the possible role of target-site mutations, T929I and G119S, in alpha-cypermethrin and phoxim resistance, respectively. To conclude, our study provides a current overview of resistance levels and resistance mutations in Turkish PRM populations and might aid in the design of an effective resistance management program of PRM in Turkey.
Koç, N., İnak, E., Nalbantoğlu, S., Alpkent, Y. N., Dermauw, W., & Van Leeuwen, T. (2022). Biochemical and molecular mechanisms of acaricide resistance in Dermanyssus gallinae populations from Turkey. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 180. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2021.104985