Smart Nanoscopy: A Review of Computational Approaches to Achieve Super-Resolved Optical Microscopy

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The field of optical nanoscopy, a paradigm referring to the recent cutting-edge developments aimed at surpassing the widely acknowledged 200nm-diffraction limit in traditional optical microscopy, has gained recent prominence traction in the 21st century. Numerous optical implementations allowing for a new frontier in traditional confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy to be explored (termed super-resolution fluorescence microscopy) have been realized through the development of techniques such as stimulated emission and depletion (STED) microscopy, photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), amongst others. Nonetheless, it would be apt to mention at this juncture that optical nanoscopy has been explored since the mid-late 20^{\mathrm {th}} century, through several computational techniques such as deblurring and deconvolution algorithms. In this review, we take a step back in the field, evaluating the various in silico methods used to achieve optical nanoscopy today, ranging from traditional deconvolution algorithms (such as the Nearest Neighbors algorithm) to the latest developments in the field of computational nanoscopy, founded on artificial intelligence (AI). An insight is provided into some of the commercial applications of AI-based super-resolution imaging, prior to delving into the potentially promising future implications of computational nanoscopy. This is facilitated by recent advancements in the field of AI, deep learning (DL) and convolutional neural network (CNN) architectures, coupled with the growing size of data sources and rapid improvements in computing hardware, such as multi-core CPUs GPUs, low-latency RAM and hard-drive capacities.




Kaderuppan, S. S., Wong, E. W. L., Sharma, A., & Woo, W. L. (2020). Smart Nanoscopy: A Review of Computational Approaches to Achieve Super-Resolved Optical Microscopy. IEEE Access. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.

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