This artice is free to access.
Background: In addition to the kidney, the intestine is one of the most important organs involved in uric acid excretion. However, the mechanism of urate excretion in the intestine remains unclear. Therefore, the relationship between soluble uric acid and the gut excretion in human intestinal cells was explored. The relevant signaling molecules were then also examined. Methods: HT-29 and Caco-2 cell lines were stimulated with soluble uric acid. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to measure protein and mRNA levels. Subcellular fractionation methods and immunofluorescence were used to quantify the proteins in different subcellular compartments. Flow cytometry experiments examined the function of ATP-binding cassette transporter, subfamily G, member 2 (ABCG2). Small interfering RNA transfection was used to assess the interaction between ABCG2 and PDZ domain-containing 1 (PDZK1). Results: Soluble uric acid increased the expression of PDZK1 and ABCG2. The stimulation of soluble uric acid also facilitated the translocation of ABCG2 from the intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane and increased its transport activity. Moreover, the upregulation of PDZK1 and ABCG2 by soluble uric acid was partially decreased by either TLR4-NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors or PI3K/Akt signaling inhibitors. Furthermore, PDZK1 knockdown significantly inhibited the expression and transport activity of ABCG2 regardless of the activation by soluble uric acid, demonstrating a pivotal role for PDZK1 in the regulation of ABCG2. Conclusions: These findings suggest that urate upregulates the expression of PDZK1 and ABCG2 for excretion in intestinal cells via activating the TLR4-NLRP3 inflammasome and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
Chen, M., Lu, X., Lu, C., Shen, N., Jiang, Y., Chen, M., & Wu, H. (2018). Soluble uric acid increases PDZK1 and ABCG2 expression in human intestinal cell lines via the TLR4-NLRP3 inflammasome and PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Arthritis Research and Therapy, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13075-018-1512-4