In this inquiry, researchers sought to understand changes in young children's learning by examining their performance and efficiency while they engaged with a variety of touch-screen virtual manipulative mathematics apps. We were particularly interested in understanding how the alignment of the apps selected for two different learning sequences might contribute to these changes. A total of 100 children, ages 3-8, participated in interviews. Researchers examined the interviews using a frame-by-frame video analysis to interpret children's interactions with six different mathematics apps on iPads in a clinical interview setting. Results revealed improvements in children's mathematics performance and efficiency between the pre and post assessment apps. Apps that were content aligned and structurally aligned, within each of the learning sequences, helped to explain the changes in children's learning.
Moyer-Packenham, P. S., Litster, K., Bullock, E. P., & Shumway, J. F. (2018). Using Video Analysis to Explain How Virtual Manipulative App Alignment Affects Children’s Mathematics Learning (pp. 9–34). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-76575-4_2