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This chapter examines two evidence-based practices-direct instruction and cognitive strategy instruction-for teaching mathematics to students with learning disabilities (LD), Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and emotional and/or behavioral disorders. Geary proposed that students with math disabilities (MD) may have one or more of three types of math disability. The first type is deficient semantic memory. The second type of MD is procedural deficits. The third type is visuospatial MD, which is characterized by difficulties in representing numerical relationships spatially and interpreting and understanding spatially represented information. Swanson reviewed 20 years of intervention research with students with LD and concluded that the two best approaches for teaching these students are direct instruction and cognitive strategy instruction. Direct instruction is based in behavioral theory, while cognitive strategy instruction is based in both behavioral and cognitive theory. They both incorporate similar evidencebased practices and procedures such as cueing, modeling, verbal rehearsal, and feedback.




Montague, M. (2021). Mathematics. In Best Practices for the Inclusive Classroom: Scientifically Based Strategies for Success (pp. 205–224). Taylor and Francis.

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