Hybrid laser arc welding creates a long weld pool tail. By high speed imaging the melt velocity behind the keyhole was measured to be very high, of the order of meters per second. Fluid dynamics simulation was carried out locally in the central axial plane of the pool tail. The high speed melt layer redistributes its momentum to slow movement of the deeper bulk. The consequences of initially high melt speed and its mass flow redistribution on the formation of the central reinforcement peak are discussed.
Alam, M. M., & Kaplan, A. F. H. (2012). Analysis of the Rapid Central Melt Pool Flow in Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding. In Physics Procedia (Vol. 39, pp. 853–862). Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2012.10.110