Preparation of brushite cements with improved properties by adding graphene oxide

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Background: Brushite (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, DCPD) cement as a promising bioactive material for bone tissue engineering is widely used to treat defects. However, relatively poor mechanical properties of brushite cement limit its application in loadbearing conditions. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of graphene oxide (GO) addition to the physical-mechanical-biological properties of brushite cement. Methods: The brushite types of cement were prepared by mixing β-tricalcium phosphate [β-TCP, Ca3 (PO4)2] and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [MCPM, Ca(H2PO4)2. H2O]. GO was introduced at 0, 0.5, 2, and 5 wt.% with the liquid. MG63 cells were cultured on the GO/CPC surfaces to observe various cellular activities and hydroxyapatite (HA) mineralization. Results: Based on our results, GO/CPC composites exhibit improvement in compressive strength compared to pure CPC. New Ca-deficient apatite layer was deposited on the composite surface after immersing immersion in SBF for 7 and 14 days. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images indicated that pure and GO incorporated brushite cement facilitates cell adhesion. CPC/GO was slightly toxic to cells such that high concentrations of GO decreased the cell viability. Besides, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of cells was improved compared with the pure CPC. Conclusion: Our results highlight the role of graphene oxide that may have great potential in enabling the utility of graphene-based materials in various biomedical applications.




Nasrollahi, N., Dehkordi, A. N., Jamshidizad, A., & Chehelgerdi, M. (2019). Preparation of brushite cements with improved properties by adding graphene oxide. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 14, 3785–3797.

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