Infrequent RAS mutation is not associated with specific histological phenotype in gliomas

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Background: Mutations in driver genes such as IDH and BRAF have been identified in gliomas. Meanwhile, dysregulations in the p53, RB1, and MAPK and/or PI3K pathways are involved in the molecular pathogenesis of glioblastoma. RAS family genes activate MAPK through activation of RAF and PI3K to promote cell proliferation. RAS mutations are a well-known driver of mutation in many types of cancers, but knowledge of their significance for glioma is insufficient. The purpose of this study was to reveal the frequency and the clinical phenotype of RAS mutant in gliomas. Methods: This study analysed RAS mutations and their clinical significance in 242 gliomas that were stored as unfixed or cryopreserved specimens removed at Kyoto University and Osaka National Hospital between May 2006 and October 2017. The hot spots mutation of IDH1/2, H3F3A, HIST1H3B, and TERT promoter and exon 2 and exon 3 of KRAS, HRAS, and NRAS were analysed with Sanger sequencing method, and 1p/19q codeletion was analysed with multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. DNA methylation array was performed in some RAS mutant tumours to improve accuracy of diagnosis. Results: RAS mutations were identified in four gliomas with three KRAS mutations and one NRAS mutation in one anaplastic oligodendroglioma, two anaplastic astrocytomas (IDH wild-type in each), and one ganglioglioma. RAS-mutant gliomas were identified with various types of glioma histology. Conclusion: RAS mutation appears infrequent, and it is not associated with any specific histological phenotype of glioma.




Makino, Y., Arakawa, Y., Yoshioka, E., Shofuda, T., Minamiguchi, S., Kawauchi, T., … Kanemura, Y. (2021). Infrequent RAS mutation is not associated with specific histological phenotype in gliomas. BMC Cancer, 21(1).

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