Thermochemical conversion of lignin into different added-value carbon materials provides interesting ways of valorization to be integrated into biorefinery schemes and pulping processes. Relatively high C percentage and the abundance of aromatic rings in the chemical structure of raw and modified lignins allows production of activated carbons, fibers, nanostructured and highly ordered carbons from different types of lignins. Activated carbons (ACs) with different porous textures have been prepared from physical and chemical activation of lignin and have been successfully tested in adsorption and heterogeneous catalysis. Carbons with hierarchical pore structure have been also obtained using nanocasting techniques with sacrificial hard templates. Surfactant templating has been used to obtain ordered mesoporous carbons. Lignin-based carbon fibers (LCFs) have been prepared by wet and dry spinning processes and by melting-spinning which allows obtaining more homogeneous fibers. Improving the structural and/or functional properties of LCFs is still a challenge and in that respect electrospinning represents a novel promising strategy for their preparation. Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) have been developed showing very high surface area (up to ≈3000 m2/g). Other promising applications of LCFs are emerging for energy storage and conversion devices. In this chapter, the characterization and potential applications of activated carbons, carbon fibers and nanostructured, hierarchical and highly ordered carbons prepared from lignin are revised and discussed.
Rodríguez, J. J., Cordero, T., & Rodríguez-Mirasol, J. (2016). Carbon Materials from Lignin and Their Applications (pp. 217–262). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1965-4_8