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A pre-metastatic niche is a microenvironment prepared for the colonization of circulating tumor cells in specific organs. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles with a variety of biological functions. Exosomes play an irreplaceable role in the development of pre-metastatic niches, and mainly function as communication medium. In this review, we analyzed the effects of exosomes on pre-metastatic niches from various perspectives, including inflammation, immune response, angiogenesis, organotropism, matrix remodeling and biomarker expression. In particular, exosomes express programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and cause the immune escape of tumor cells. The immunomodulatory effects of exosomes and their potential in liquid diagnosis have drawn our attention. The potential value of exosomes and pre-metastatic niches will be realized in the field of immunity therapy.
Guo, Y., Ji, X., Liu, J., Fan, D., Zhou, Q., Chen, C., … Sun, Z. (2019, March 11). Effects of exosomes on pre-metastatic niche formation in tumors. Molecular Cancer. BioMed Central Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12943-019-0995-1