Photochemical upconversion is performed, whereby emitter triplet states are produced through triplet energy transfer from sensitizer molecules excited with low energy photons. The triplet emitter molecules undergo triplet-triplet annihilation to yield excited singlet states which emit upconverted fluorescence. Experiments comparing the 560 nm prompt fluorescence when rubrene emitter molecules are excited directly, using 525 nm laser pulses, to the delayed, upconverted fluorescence when the porphyrin sensitizer molecules are excited with 670 nm laser pulses reveal annihilation efficiencies to produce excited singlet emitters in excess of 20%. Conservative measurements reveal a 25% annihilation efficiency, while a direct comparison between the prompt and delayed fluorescence yield suggests a value as high as 33%. Due to fluorescence quenching, the photon upconversion efficiencies are lower, at 16%.
Cheng, Y. Y., Khoury, T., Clady, R. G. C. R., Tayebjee, M. J. Y., Ekins-Daukes, N. J., Crossley, M. J., & Schmidt, T. W. (2010). On the efficiency limit of triplet-triplet annihilation for photochemical upconversion. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 12(1), 66–71. https://doi.org/10.1039/b913243k