In the subsequent chapter, three different models of active state support for religion will be examined in a critical way: the Belgian system of fixed compulsory taxes; the Italian system of mandatory religiously-oriented taxes; and the German system of voluntary religious taxes. Within this elaboration, particular attention will be given to state subsidies for (institutionalized) religion, for faith-based schools and for religious education. The chapter concludes by listing some recurrently arising problems in policies of active support: the impossibility of providing objective criteria for recognition, the related problem of defining religion in an impartial way, the difficult search for a fair balance between religious and educational freedom, and the requirement of neutral state schools.
Franken, L. (2016). Active State Support for Religion. In Boston Studies in Philosophy, Religion and Public Life (Vol. 5, pp. 149–181). Springer Science and Business Media B.V. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28944-1_13