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The ability to discriminate between original documents and their photocopies poses a problem when conducting automated forensic examinations of large numbers of confiscated documents. This paper describes a novel frequency domain approach for printing technique and copy detection of scanned document images. Tests using a dataset consisting of 49 laser-printed, 14 inkjet-printed and 46 photocopied documents demonstrate that the approach outperforms existing spatial domain methods for image resolutions exceeding 200 dpi. An increase in classification accuracy of approximately 5% is achieved for low scan resolutions of 300 dpi and 400 dpi. In addition, the approach has the advantage of increased processing speed.
Schulze, C., Schreyer, M., Stahl, A., & Breuel, T. (2009). Using DCT features for printing technique and copy detection. In IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology (Vol. 306, pp. 95–106). Springer New York LLC. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-04155-6_7