All-cause mortality after antiretroviral therapy initiation in HIV-positive women from Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas

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Abstract

Background: Women account for over half of persons living with HIV/AIDS globally. We examined geographic variation in all-cause mortality after antiretroviral therapy (ART) for women living with HIV (WLWH) worldwide.Methods:We pooled data from WLWH at least 18 years initiating ART 2000-2014 within COHERE (Europe) and IeDEA regions (East Africa, West Africa, South Africa, North America, Latin America/Caribbean). Mortality rates were calculated at 0-3, 3-6, 6-12, 12-24 and 24-48 months after ART, and mortality rate ratios were compared with European rates with piecewise exponential parametric survival models based on Poisson regression.Findings:One hundred ninety thousand, one hundred and seventy-five WLWH (16% Europe, 47% East Africa, 13% West Africa, 19% South Africa, 1% South America, 3% North America and 2% Central America/Caribbean) were included. The highest death rates occurred 0-3 months after ART [1.51 (95% CI 1.25-1.82) per 100 person-years in Europe, 12.45 (11.30-13.73), 14.03 (13.12-15.02) and 9.44 (8.80-10.11) in East, West and South Africa, and 1.53 (0.97-2.43), 7.83 (5.44-11.27) and 17.02 (14.62-19.81) in North, South America and Central America/Caribbean, respectively] and declined thereafter. Mortality in Europe was the lowest, with regional differences greatest in the first 3 months and smaller at longer ART durations [adjusted rate ratios 24-48 months after ART: 3.63 (95% CI 3.04-4.33), 5.61 (4.84-6.51) and 3.47 (2.97-4.06) for East, West and South Africa; 2.86 (2.26-3.62), 2.42 (1.65-3.55) and 2.50 (1.92-3.26) for North, South America and Central America/Caribbean, respectively].Conclusion:Global variations in short-term and long-term mortality among WLWH initiating ART may inform context-specific interventions.

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All-cause mortality after antiretroviral therapy initiation in HIV-positive women from Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas. (2020). AIDS, 34(2), 277–289. https://doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002399

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