Sequence variation of necdin gene in Bovidae

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Background: Necdin (NDN), a member of the melanoma antigen family showing imprinted pattern of expression, has been implicated as causing Prader-Willi symptoms, and known to participate in cellular growth, cellular migration and differentiation. The region where NDN is located has been associated to QTLs affecting reproduction and early growth in cattle, but location and functional analysis of the molecular mechanisms have not been established. Methods: Here we report the sequence variation of the entire coding sequence from 72 samples of cattle, yak, buffalo, goat and sheep, and discuss its variation in Bovidae. Median-joining network analysis was used to analyze the variation found in the species. Synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates were determined for the analysis of all the polymorphic sites. Phylogenetic analysis were carried out among the species of Bovidae to reconstruct their relationships. Results: From the phylogenetic analysis with the consensus sequences of the studied Bovidae species, we found that only 11 of the 26 nucleotide changes that differentiate them produced amino acid changes. All the SNPs found in the cattle breeds were novel and showed similar percentages of nucleotides with non-synonymous substitutions at the N-terminal, MHD and C-terminal (12.3, 12.8 and 12.5%, respectively), and were much higher than the percentage of synonymous substitutions (2.5, 2.6 and 4.9%, respectively). Three mutations in cattle and one in sheep, detected in heterozygous individuals were predicted to be deleterious. Additionally, the analysis of the biochemical characteristics in the most common form of the proteins in each species show very little difference in molecular weight, pI, net charge, instability index, aliphatic index and GRAVY (Table 4) in the Bovidae species, except for sheep, which had a higher molecular weight, instability index and GRAVY. Conclusions: There is sufficient variation in this gene within and among the studied species, and because NDN carry key functions in the organism, it can have effects in economically important traits in the production of these species. NDN sequence is phylogenetically informative in this group, thus we propose this gene as a phylogenetic marker to study the evolution and conservation in Bovidae.

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Peters, S. O., De Donato, M., Hussain, T., Rodulfo, H., Babar, M. E., & Imumorin, I. G. (2018). Sequence variation of necdin gene in Bovidae. Journal of Animal Science and Technology, 60(1).

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