Treatment of dental and orthodontic complications in thalassaemia

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Abstract

Background Thalassaemia is a quantitative abnormality of haemoglobin caused by mutations in genes controlling production of alpha or beta globins. Abnormally unpaired globin chains cause haemolytic anaemia by causing membrane damage and cell death within organ systems and destruction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow. The life-long management of the general health effects of thalassaemia in affected individuals is a highly challenging issue in and of itself; and failure to deal with dental and orthodontic complications in people with thalassaemia exacerbates the public health, financial and personal burden posed by the condition. There exists a lack of evidence-based guidelines for care-seekers and providers to best deal with such dental and orthodontic complications in thalassaemia, which this review seeks to address. Objectives The main objective of this review was to assess different methods to treat dental and orthodontic complications in people with thalassaemia. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group’s Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Date of last search: 01 August 2019. We also searched nine online databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Literature in the Health Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean database, African Index Medicus, Index Medicus for South East Asia Region, Index Medicus for the Eastern Mediterranean Region, Indexing of Indian Medical Journals). We searched the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews and contacted haematologists, experts in fields of dentistry, organizations, pharmaceutical companies and researchers working in this field. Date of last search: 22 July 2019. Selection criteria We searched for published or unpublished randomised controlled trials for treatment of dental and orthodontic complications in individuals diagnosed with thalassaemia, irrespective of phenotype, severity, age, gender and ethnic origin. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened 35,202 titles from search results. We identified four unique randomised controlled trials, of which one seemed potentially relevant. Based on closer inspection, the trial was found not to be eligible for inclusion. Main results We did not find any relevant trials for inclusion in the review. Authors’ conclusions We were unable to draw any conclusions due to the lack of available data and trials. This review highlights the need for conducting and appropriate reporting, of high-quality randomised controlled trials investigating the effectiveness of various treatment modalities for dental and orthodontic complications in people with thalassaemia.

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Mulimani, P., Abas, A. B. L., Karanth, L., Colombatti, R., & Kulkarni, P. (2019, August 2). Treatment of dental and orthodontic complications in thalassaemia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. John Wiley and Sons Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012969.pub2

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