In the European Union, heat is dominant form of energy needed in buildings. More than 50% of total final energy demand in EU is in form of heat and more that 80% of heat is needed at temperatures less than 250 °C. In buildings, heat is needed for space heating, domestic hot water heating, and air-conditioning and for space cooling when cold is produced by heat-driven sorption systems and, in small amounts, for cooking. Heat generators are appliances that convert the internal energy of am energy carrier and exchange heat to the heat transfer fluid at the highest energy efficiency and the lowest environmental impact as possible. In this chapter, the best available technologies for the on-site generation of the heat from fossil fuels and renewable energy sources are presented, as well as the advantages of near-by district heating systems.
Medved, S., Domjan, S., & Arkar, C. (2019). Best available technologies (BAT) for on-site and near-by generation of heat for NZEB. In Springer Tracts in Civil Engineering (pp. 131–160). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02822-0_6