Paternal effect on embryonic development occurs as early as fertilization. Incorrect formation of the spermatozoon due to centrosome defects and abnormal concentrations of any components involved in the activation process lead to failure immediately or in the subsequent cell cycles. Sperm chromosomal abnormalities result in early embryo developmental arrests. Generally poor spermatozoa lead to poor blastocyst formation. Sperm DNA fragmentation may impair even late post-implantation development. The DNA repair capacity of the oocytes is of major importance. Early preimplantation development, i.e. until maternal to zygotic transition, is maternally driven. Maternal mRNAs and proteins are of major importance, as there is an unavoidable turnover of these reserves. Polyadenylation of these mRNAs is precisely controlled, in order to avoid too early or too late transcription and translation of the housekeeping genes. An important set of maternal regulations, such as DNA stability, transcriptional regulation and protection against oxidative stress, are impaired by age. The embryo biochemical endogenous pool is very important and may depend upon the environment, i.e. the culture medium. Paternal, maternal and environmental factors are unavoidable parameters; they become evident when age impairs oocyte quality.
Ménézo, Y. J. R. (2006). Paternal and maternal factors in preimplantation embryogenesis: Interaction with the biochemical environment. Reproductive BioMedicine Online, 12(5), 616–621. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1472-6483(10)61188-1