Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates with deletions in histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 genes in context with sub-Saharan Africa and India: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Abstract

Background: In 2017, nearly 80% of malaria morbidity and mortality occurred in sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries and India. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), especially those targeting histidine-rich protein 2 (PfHRP2) of Plasmodium falciparum, have become an important diagnostic tool in these malaria-endemic areas. However, the chances of RDT-oriented successful treatment are increasingly jeopardized by the appearance of mutants with deletions in pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes. This systematic review and meta-analysis determines the prevalence of field P. falciparum isolates with deletion in pfhrp2 and/or pfhrp3 genes and their proportion among false-negative results in the PfHRP2-based RDTs in SSA and India. Methods: Eight electronic databases were used for searching potentially relevant publications for the systematic review analysis, wherein the main methodological aspects of included studies were analysed and some missing links in the included studies were identified. Results: A total of 19 studies were included, 16 from SSA and 3 from India. The pooled prevalence of pfhrp2 deletions was 8 and 5% while 16 and 4% for pfhrp3 gene deletions in Africa and India, respectively. The pooled proportion of pfhrp2 gene deletions found among false negative PfHRP2-based RDTs results was about 27.0 and 69.0% in Africa and India, respectively. Conclusions: This review study indicates a relatively high proportion of both pfhrp2/3 genes deletions in P. falciparum isolates and among false-negative malaria cases using PfHRP2-based RDT results in SSA and India. Recently the deletions in pfhrp2/3 genes have also been reported from two African countries (Nigeria and Sudan). This review emphasizes the importance of more extensive studies and standardization of studies addressing the pfhrp2/3 gene deletions in malarious areas.

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Kojom, L. P., & Singh, V. (2020, January 28). Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates with deletions in histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 genes in context with sub-Saharan Africa and India: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Malaria Journal. BioMed Central Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-019-3090-6

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