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We surveyed the relationship between the scale of space weather events and their occurrence rate in Japan, and we discussed the social impact of these phenomena during the Project for Solar–Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP) in 2015–2019. The information was compiled for domestic users of space weather forecasts for appropriate preparedness against space weather disasters. This paper gives a comprehensive summary of the survey, focusing on the fields of electricity, satellite operations, communication and broadcasting, satellite positioning usage, aviation, human space activity, and daily life on the Earth’s surface, using the cutting-edge knowledge of space weather. Quantitative estimations of the economic impact of space weather events on electricity supply and aviation are also given. Some topics requiring future research, which were identified during the survey are also described. Graphic Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].
Ishii, M., Shiota, D., Tao, C., Ebihara, Y., Fujiwara, H., Ishii, T., … Yoden, S. (2021). Space weather benchmarks on Japanese society. Earth, Planets and Space, 73(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40623-021-01420-5