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Background: Water requirements increases with gestational age. Insufficient water intake causes dehydration, which may adversely affect maternal health and birth outcomes. However, few related studies have been conducted. The purposes are to assess the water intake and hydration state among pregnant women, and to investigate the associations with pregnancy complications and maternal and infant outcomes. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study will be applied. A total of 380 pregnant women will be recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical University. Hydration biomarkers and health outcomes will be tested during 15~17 weeks' gestation, 20~22 weeks' gestation, 30~32 weeks' gestation, during childbirth and 42 days after childbirth. Daily fluid intake will be collected using a 24-h fluid intake record for 7 consecutive days. A semi-quantified food frequency method will be used to assess food intake and water intake from food. Anthropometric measurement will be taken following standardized processes. Intracellular fluid (ICF) and extracellular fluid (ECF) will be measured using a body composition analyzer. Morning fasting urine and blood osmolality will be tested by laboratory physicians using an osmotic pressure molar concentration meter. Pregnancy complications will be assessed and diagnosed throughout pregnancy and childbirth. Maternal-infant outcomes will be monitored using related indicators and technologies. In order to explore the internal mechanism and interactions from the perspective of endocrine, pregnancy related hormones (estradiol, prolactin, progesterone) and the hydration-related hormones (copeptin) will be tested during pregnancy. A mixed model of repeated measures ANOVA will be analyzed using SAS 9.2. Results: The results may provide basic data on water intake among pregnant women. The association between hydration state and maternal-infant outcomes will also be explored. Conclusions: This preliminary exploratory study findings will fill the gaps in the research on water intake, hydration and maternal health, birth outcomes, provide scientific reference data for updating recommendation on water adequate intake among pregnant women, and provide suggestion for developing water intake interventions. Trial registration: The protocol has been registered on the website of Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. The Identifier code is ChiCTR1800019284. The Registry date is 3 November, 2018. Registry name is "Study for the correlation between hydration state and pregnancy complications, maternal and infant outcomes during pregnancy".
Zhang, N., Zhang, F., Chen, S., Han, F., Lin, G., Zhai, Y., … Ma, G. (2020). Associations between hydration state and pregnancy complications, maternal-infant outcomes: Protocol of a prospective observational cohort study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-2765-x
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