Although research has indicated that augmented reality (AR)–facilitated instruction improves learning performance, further investigation of the usefulness of AR from a psychological perspective has been recommended. Researchers consider presence a major psychological effect when users are immersed in virtual reality environments. However, most research on learner presence has focused on measuring it rather than the factors influencing it. This study explored the relationship between learner perception and presence in an AR-facilitated learning environment. A game-type AR learning process was developed and an experiment was implemented employing a one-group pretest–posttest method. Three sets of research instruments were developed, comprising a learning achievement test, a learner's presence inventory, and a questionnaire on learners’ perception of the AR-mediated environment. A total of 60 validated data samples were collected and statistically analysed. The researchers determined that learner presence closely relates to learning achievement and AR learning perception. These results indicate that a more satisfactory AR perception leads to a higher level of learner presence in the AR environment, thereby resulting in more beneficial learning outcomes.
Chen, Y. H., & Wang, C. H. (2018). Learner presence, perception, and learning achievements in augmented–reality–mediated learning environments. Interactive Learning Environments, 26(5), 695–708. https://doi.org/10.1080/10494820.2017.1399148