Biofilm is the predominant mode of life for bacteria and today it is implicated in numerous human diseases. A growing body of scientific and clinical evidence now exists regarding the presence of biofilm in wounds. This review summarizes the clinical experiences and in vivo evidence that implicate biofilm in delayed wound healing. The various mechanisms by which biofilm may impede healing are highlighted, including impaired epithelialization and granulation tissue formation, and reduced susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents and host defenses. Strategies to manage biofilm and encourage progression to wound healing are discussed; these include debridement and appropriate antimicrobial therapies which may be improved upon in the future with the emergence of anti-biofilm technologies.
Metcalf, D. G., & Bowler, P. G. (2013, June 1). Biofilm delays wound healing: A review of the evidence. Burns and Trauma. Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.4103/2321-3868.113329