This essay explores the various efforts to create an Afghan middle class through three periods: first under the Musahiban dynasty (until 1973) and republic (1973–1978), second during the communist period and Soviet intervention (1978–1992), and lastly since the United States-led invasion in 2001. Drawing on archival research and oral histories, the authors place the development programs of each era into broader context, while pointing to the similarities and differences. The authors also compare the Cold War period, when state-led modernization was in vogue, and the current era, when the role of the state is minimized and NGOs are a dominant part of the development landscape.
Kalinovsky, A. M., & Giustozzi, A. (2017). The Professional Middle Class in Afghanistan: From Pivot of Development to Political Marginality. Humanity: An International Journal of Human Rights, Humanitarianism, and Development, 8(2), 355–378. https://doi.org/10.1353/hum.2017.0023