Ringing mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) enables imaging the surfaces of biological samples, cells, tissue, biopolymers, etc. to obtain unique information, such as the size of molecules pulled by the AFM probe from the sample surface, heights of the sample at different load forces, etc. (up to eight different imaging channels can be recorded simultaneously, which is in addition to five channels already available in other rival modes). The imaging can be done in both air (gases) and liquid (buffers). In addition, the images obtained in ringing mode do not have several common artifacts and can be collected up to 20× faster compared to the rival imaging modes. Here we describe a step-by-step approach to collect images in ringing mode applied to biological and soft materials in general. Technical details, potential difficulties, and points of special attention are described.
Sokolov, I., & Dokukin, M. E. (2018). Imaging of soft and biological samples using AFM ringing mode. In Methods in Molecular Biology (Vol. 1814, pp. 469–482). Humana Press Inc. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-8591-3_28