This book intends to deepen the study of the fractional calculus, giving special emphasis to variable-order operators. It is organized in two parts, as follows. In the first part, we review the basic concepts of fractional calculus (Chapter 1) and of the fractional calculus of variations (Chapter 2). In Chapter 1, we start with a brief overview about fractional calculus and an introduction to the theory of some special functions in fractional calculus. Then, we recall several fractional operators (integrals and derivatives) definitions and some properties of the considered fractional derivatives and integrals are introduced. In the end of this chapter, we review integration by parts formulas for different operators. Chapter 2 presents a short introduction to the classical calculus of variations and review different variational problems, like the isoperimetric problems or problems with variable endpoints. In the end of this chapter, we introduce the theory of the fractional calculus of variations and some fractional variational problems with variable-order. In the second part, we systematize some new recent results on variable-order fractional calculus of (Tavares, Almeida and Torres, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018). In Chapter 3, considering three types of fractional Caputo derivatives of variable-order, we present new approximation formulas for those fractional derivatives and prove upper bound formulas for the errors. In Chapter 4, we introduce the combined Caputo fractional derivative of variable-order and corresponding higher-order operators. Some properties are also given. Then, we prove fractional Euler-Lagrange equations for several types of fractional problems of the calculus of variations, with or without constraints.
Almeida, R., Tavares, D., & Torres, D. F. M. (2018). The Variable-Order Fractional Calculus of Variations. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-94006-9