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Objective: It has been reported that interleukin (IL)-10 limits blood-induced cartilage damage. Our aim was to study the effect of IL-4 alone and in combination with IL-10 on blood-induced cartilage damage. Design: Healthy human full thickness cartilage explants were cultured for 4 days in the presence of 50% v/v blood. IL-4, IL-10, or a combination of both cytokines was added during blood exposure. Cartilage matrix turnover was determined after a recovery period; additionally cytokine production, chondrocyte apoptosis, and expression of the IL-4 and IL-10 receptors were analyzed directly after exposure. Results: Blood-induced damage to the cartilage matrix was limited by IL-4 in a dose-dependent way (. P
Van Meegeren, M. E. R., Roosendaal, G., Jansen, N. W. D., Wenting, M. J. G., Van Wesel, A. C. W., Van Roon, J. A. G., & Lafeber, F. P. J. G. (2012). IL-4 alone and in combination with IL-10 protects against blood-induced cartilage damage. Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, 20(7), 764–772. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2012.04.002