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The enhancing antibiofilm activity of curcumin on Streptococcus mutans strains from severe early childhood caries

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Abstract

Background: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is one of the main cariogenic bacteria for caries. It was found that the clinical strains of S. mutans isolated from caries active population have stronger cariogenic ability than the isolates from caries-free (CF) people. Previous studies have found that curcumin can inhibit biofilm formation of S. mutans UA159. The objective of this study is to explore the antibiofilm effect of curcumin on the clinical isolates of S. mutans from severe early childhood caries(SECC). Results: The isolates from SECC group had more biomass than CF group (t = 4.296, P < 0.001). The acidogenicity and aciduricity of the strains from two groups showed no significant difference. After treatment with curcumin, the viability of biofilm was reduced to 61.865% ± 7.108% in SECC and to 84.059% ± 10.227% in CF group at 24 h (P < 0.05). The net reduction of live bacteria and total bacteria in the SECC group was significantly higher than that of the CF group (live bacteria t = 3.305, P = 0.016; total bacteria t = 2.378, P = 0.045) at 5 min. For 24 h, the net reduction of live bacteria and total bacteria in the SECC group was significantly higher than that of the CF group (live bacteria t = 3.305, P = 0.016; total bacteria t = 2.378, P = 0.045). The reduction of biofilm thickness reduced significantly in 5 min (t = 4.110, P = 0.015) and in 24 h (t = 3.453, P = 0.014). Long-term (24 h) curcumin treatment inhibited the amount of EPS in SECC group from (25.980 ± 1.156) μm3/μm2 to (20.136 ± 1.042) μm3/μm2, the difference was statistically significant (t = 7.510, P < 0.001). The gene of gtfC, gtfD, ftf, gbpB, fruA and srtA in the CF group and the gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, ftf, gbpB, srtA in SECC group were respectively reduced after 5 min curcumin treatment. After 24 h treatment, the gtfB, gtfC, gtfD, ftf, gbpB, fruA and srtA in both two groups were downregulation, all the differences were statistically significant. Conclusions: Curcumin has antibiofilm activity on clinical strains of S. mutans, especially for those isolated from SECC.

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Li, B., Pan, T., Lin, H., & Zhou, Y. (2020). The enhancing antibiofilm activity of curcumin on Streptococcus mutans strains from severe early childhood caries. BMC Microbiology, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12866-020-01975-5

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