Use of single extraction methods to predict bioavailability of heavy metals in polluted soils to rice

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Human exposure to toxic heavy metals via dietary intake is of increasing concern. Heavy-metal pollution of a rice production system can pose a threat to human health. Thus, it was necessary to develop a suitable extraction procedure that would represent the content of metal available to rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). The aim of this study was to predict, on the basis of single extraction procedures of soil heavy metals, the accumulation of heavy metals (cadium, lead, copper, and zinc) in rice plants. Six extracting agents [Mehlich 1, Mehlich 3, EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), DTPA-TEA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-triethanolamine), ammonium acetate (NH4OAc), and calcium chloride (CaCl2)] were tested to evaluate the bioavailability of heavy metals from paddy soils contaminated with lead-zinc mine tailings to rice. The extraction capacity of the metals was found to be of the order EDTA > Mehlich 3 > Mehlich 1 > DTPA-TEA > NH4OAc > CaCl2. The correlation analysis between met-als extracted with different extractants and concentrations of the metals in the grain and stalk of the plant showed positive correlations with all metals. The greatest values of correlation coefficients were determined between the NH4OAc- and CaCl2-soluble fractions of soil and contents in plants in all four metals studied. Therefore, NH4OAc and CaCl2 were the most suitable extractants for predicting bioavailability of heavy metals in the polluted soils to rice. The results suggested that uptake of heavy metals by rice was mostly from exchangeable and water-soluble fractions of the metals in the soils. Soil-extractable metals were more significantly correlated with metal accumula-tion in the stalk than in the grain. The pH had more significant influence on availability of heavy metals in the soils than total content of metals and other soil properties. The bioavailability of metals for rice plants would be high in acidic soils. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.




Zhang, M. K., Liu, Z. Y., & Wang, H. (2010). Use of single extraction methods to predict bioavailability of heavy metals in polluted soils to rice. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 41(7), 820–831.

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