Chromosome analysis in saccodon wagneri (Characiformes) and insights into the karyotype evolution of parodontidae

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Abstract

Parodontidae is a relatively small group of Neotropical characiform fishes consisting of three genera (Apareiodon, Parodon, and Saccodon) with 32 valid species. A vast cytogenetic literature is available on Apareiodon and Parodon, but to date, there is no cytogenetic data about Saccodon, a genus that contains only three species with a trans-Andean distribution. In the present study the karyotype of S. wagneri was described, based on both conventional (Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR, C-bands) and molecular (repetitive DNA mapping by fluorescent in situ hybridization) methods. A diploid chromosome number of 2n = 54 was observed in both sexes, and the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes of the ZZ/ ZW type was detected. The W chromosome has a terminal heterochromatin band that occupies approximately half of the long arm, being this band approximately half the size of the Z chromosome. The FISH assay showed a synteny of the 18S-rDNA and 5S-rDNA genes in the chromosome pair 14, and the absence of interstitial telomeric sites. Our data reinforce the hypothesis of a conservative karyotype structure in Parodontidae and suggest an ancient origin of the sex chromosomes in the fishes of this family.

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Nirchio, M., Masache, M. C., Paim, F. G., Cioffi, M. de B., Filho, O. M., Barriga, R., … Rossi, A. R. (2021). Chromosome analysis in saccodon wagneri (Characiformes) and insights into the karyotype evolution of parodontidae. Neotropical Ichthyology, 19(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-2020-0103

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