Parodontidae is a relatively small group of Neotropical characiform fishes consisting of three genera (Apareiodon, Parodon, and Saccodon) with 32 valid species. A vast cytogenetic literature is available on Apareiodon and Parodon, but to date, there is no cytogenetic data about Saccodon, a genus that contains only three species with a trans-Andean distribution. In the present study the karyotype of S. wagneri was described, based on both conventional (Giemsa staining, Ag-NOR, C-bands) and molecular (repetitive DNA mapping by fluorescent in situ hybridization) methods. A diploid chromosome number of 2n = 54 was observed in both sexes, and the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes of the ZZ/ ZW type was detected. The W chromosome has a terminal heterochromatin band that occupies approximately half of the long arm, being this band approximately half the size of the Z chromosome. The FISH assay showed a synteny of the 18S-rDNA and 5S-rDNA genes in the chromosome pair 14, and the absence of interstitial telomeric sites. Our data reinforce the hypothesis of a conservative karyotype structure in Parodontidae and suggest an ancient origin of the sex chromosomes in the fishes of this family.
Nirchio, M., Masache, M. C., Paim, F. G., Cioffi, M. de B., Filho, O. M., Barriga, R., … Rossi, A. R. (2021). Chromosome analysis in saccodon wagneri (Characiformes) and insights into the karyotype evolution of parodontidae. Neotropical Ichthyology, 19(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-2020-0103